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Ali Vs Marciano on Make A Gif

Muhammad Ali floors Rocky Marciano in a demo fight between the two in 1969.

Nuff said!!

A kind word warms a man throughout three winters

 ~ Turkish Proverb ~

In 1347, the Black Death swept across Europe. It would go on to wipe out around a third of the population, although the death toll varied from one place to the next and many communities were completely obliterated.

Everywhere there was a widespread feeling that the apocalypse had come. This is not surprising as on top of the onset of the worst plague man had ever known, the Church during the Black Death years was corrupt, natural disasters were abundant and war was even more commonplace than was usual in the Middle Ages.

The Spread of the Flagellant Movement During the Black Death

The flagellant movement first appeared in Italy and soon spread across the rest of the continent, adding to their number as they went. This new flagellant movement soon developed into a sect with their own specialized doctrine and ceremonies. They were often known as The Brotherhood of the Cross as they dressed in white habits and mantles, each decorated with a red cross.

In order to be allowed to join a procession, a new member was expected to commit for thirty-three days. He needed to have enough money to sustain himself, to have the blessing of his wife and to swear to be obedient to the Master.

The Ceremony of the Flagellants

Although there was some variation, the ceremony was basically the same throughout the continent. Twice a day they would walk, stripped to the waist, to the Public Square or principle church of a town or village. They would form a circle and take up different postures depending on the type of sin they wanted to do penance for; a murderer would lay down on his back, an adulterer face down and a perjurer on one side holding up three fingers.

The Master would then beat them individually before telling them to rise and start beating themselves, chanting that their blood was mingled with the blood of Christ and that their penance would save the whole world as they did so.

The Master would then read from the ‘Heavenly Letter’, a note believed to be written by God which was found at the Church of St Peter in Rome. The letter stated that God was angry at mankind for his sinful ways;

O ye children of men, ye of little faith ….Ye have not repented of your sins nor kept My holy Sunday.... Thus I had thought to exterminate you and all living things from the earth; but for the sake of my Holy Mother, and for that of the Holy Cherubim and Seraphim [angels] who supplicate for you both day and night, I have granted a delay.

Flagellants and the Catholic Church

Although the movement was originally well received by Pope Clement VI and the Catholic Church during the Black Death’s early days, the growing movement soon came up against church officials. It was officially banned on 20th October, 1349 when the Pope sent letters to European bishops prohibiting the processions.

However it was not the act of flagellation in itself that was objected to but the beliefs held by members of the Brotherhood of the Cross. They felt that by whipping themselves they had a second baptism and were also winning favour from God. They hoped that this favour would lead to a delay of the imminent onset of the apocalypse.

Not only did their teachings go against accepted doctrine, the movement had also been very critical of the Church, claiming the clergy neglected their duties in caring for people’s souls and failed to properly observe the rules of fasting.

After its Papal banning, the popularity of the flagellant movement began to diminish and although small scale movements would appear well into the 15th century, larger scale movements that happened independent of the Church virtually vanished.

Further Reading:

The Black Death

The Black Death and its Route to Europe

The Black Death and the Decline of the Influence of the Catholic Church

The Church and the Black Death

The Black Plague

A Pirate Pearl Necklace....;)

There was a time when Japanese Buddhism only catered to the upper classes.
That all changed in the Ninth century when two Japanese monks, Saicho (767-822)
and Kukai (774-835), went to study religion in China. When they went back to Japan,
they had with them new texts, ideas and practices that revolutionized Buddhism and made
it practical and accessible for the common people.

 Holyfield's tactics got to Tyson and in the third round he lost what little composure he had. He spat out his gum shield, pulled his opponent into him and bit a chunk out of his ear, then dramatically spat the flesh onto the canvas. The fight continued after the wound was cleaned up only for Tyson to go straight in a bite the other ear.

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