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Vampire found in Italy?
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In Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism the word yoga means "spiritual discipline". People often associate yoga with the postures and stances that make up the physical activity of the exercise, but after closer inspection it becomes clear that there are many more aspects of yoga. It is an activity that has been practiced for thousands of years, and it is something that has evolved and changed overtime. Different factions of yoga have developed since its conception.
The exact history and origins of yoga is uncertain; however, there are pieces that have been connected and allow us to make some conclusions. It is known that yoga originated from the East. The earliest signs of yoga appear in ancient Shamanism. Evidence of yoga postures were found on artifacts that date back to 3000 B.C. Evidence of yoga is found in the oldest-existing text, Rig-Veda. Rig-Veda is a composition of hymns. Topics of the Rig-Veda include prayer, divine harmony, and greater being.
He was a brilliant strategist who used the Apache knowledge of the arid desert environment to his advantage, and for years Geronimo and his men successfully evaded two of the U.S. Army's most talented Indian fighters, General George Crook and General Nelson A. Miles.
But by 1886, the great Apache warrior had grown tired of fighting and further resistance seemed increasingly pointless: there were just too many whites and too few Apaches. On September 4, 1886, Geronimo turned himself over to Miles, becoming the last American Indian warrior in history to formally surrender to the United States.
The suffrage awarded to women allowed them to enjoy a high level of financial freedom. A body of surviving accounts and contracts show that they received the same rewards as men for the same work and both royal and non-royal female citizens could own property and make wills.
Possessions, property and debt acquired by a woman through labour or inheritance was seen as separate from her husband and if she became a widow, she was entitled to inherit one third of the property they jointly owned, with the rest divided between the late husband’s children and siblings.
Despite their freedoms, Egyptian women were most commonly bestowed with the title of ‘Lady of the House’ and were expected to run the home and bear children. For poorer families, large numbers of offspring were necessary to provide extra sources of labour and income but for the wealthy few, this was less of an obstacle.
With both male and female servants to tend to daily chores and child rearing, richer women spent much of their time in leisure pursuits like listening to music, taking care of their pets, playing board games, eating good food and drinking fine wines.
It is as mothers, sisters, wives and daughters to pharaohs, that royal women were most influential to the state. This is reflected in the scale of monuments they had put up in their name and the fact that they were often buried within pyramid complexes Dr Fletcher argues.
Pharaohs also had a host of ‘minor wives’, who often were able to wield some influence and as succession did not necessarily go to the eldest son, they had the opportunity to become mother to a pharaoh.
Pharaohs would often have a host of women known as ‘Ornaments of the King’ who were chosen for their beauty and employed to entertain with singing and dancing. Although this seems more in keeping with treatment of women elsewhere, in Egypt, they were important participants in court life and were active in royal functions, state events and religious ceremonies.
Women's History Magazine
Mention the word 'harem' and images of flimsily dressed dusky maidens spring to mind. But for more than a century, says Professor Leslie Peirce, power in the Ottoman Empire was centred on the sultan's harem in Istanbul.
For some 130 years, the women of the Ottoman royal harem enjoyed extraordinary political influence. This unusual period during the 16th and 17th centuries – when powerful women exercised all royal prerogatives but one: leading Ottoman armies into battle – is popularly known as the 'sultanate of women'
Four women stand out in this story, all royal concubines whose sons went on to occupy the Ottoman throne:
- Hurrem, who first established residence in the imperial palace, in the early 1530s
- Nurbanu, who, when she died in 1583, was described by the Venetian ambassador as 'a woman of the utmost goodness, courage and wisdom' despite the fact that she 'thwarted some while rewarding others'
- The 17th-century regent mothers Kösem and her daughter-in-law Turhan, whose political rivalry culminated in Kösem's murder in 1651.
From the time of the Ottoman dynasty's emergence in the 14th century, mothers of princes played a recognised role as political tutors and guardians of their sons – roles they would maintain throughout the dynasty's 600-year lifespan. In the 15th century, elder females – aunts, mothers and sisters of sultans – were often entrusted with critical diplomatic missions.
Full article: channel4.com
1. Lay on the ground with your legs straight and your hands underneath your bottom.
2. Keep your abdominal muscles tight with your head and lower back flush on the ground.
3. Pull your legs up and back to a 90° angle from the ground. Do not lock out your knees and keep your focus on your abdominal muscles.
4. Your lower back should remain flat on the ground at all times
5. Lower your legs, stop just before your feet touch the ground and reverse the motion back up.
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