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Five thousand years ago the chain of independent city-states lining the River Nile united to form one long, thin country ruled by one king, or pharaoh. Almost instantly a highly distinctive culture developed. For almost 30 centuries Egypt remained the foremost nation in the Mediterranean world. Then, in 332 BC, the arrival of Alexander the Great heralded the end of the Egyptian way of life.

The unique culture was quickly buried beneath successive layers of Greek, Roman and Arabic tradition, and all knowledge of Egypt's glorious past was lost. Only the decaying stone monuments, their hieroglyphic texts now unreadable, survived as silent witnesses to a long lost civilisation.

Some 2,000 years on, however, the ancient hieroglyphs have been decoded and Egyptology - the study of ancient Egypt - is booming. At a time when Latin and ancient Greek are rapidly vanishing from the school curriculum, more and more people are choosing to read hieroglyphs in their spare time. And the Egyptian galleries of our museums are packed with visitors, while the galleries dedicated to other ancient cultures remain empty.

To emphasise the point, University Egyptology courses are full to bursting, and night school classes are attracting increasing numbers of people happy to spend their leisure hours studying the far distant past. This obvious interest has become self-fulfilling. Publishers and television producers are happy to invest in ancient Egypt because they know that there will be an appreciative audience for their work, and every new book, each new programme, attracts more devotees to the subject.

All ancient civilisations have contributed in some way to the development of modern society. All therefore are equally deserving of study. Why then do so many people choose to concentrate on Egypt? What does the culture of ancient Egypt offer the modern world that other cultures - those of Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, or China - do not?

Those who have been bitten by the Egyptology bug cite a variety of reasons for their addiction - the beauty of the art, the skill of the craftsmen, the intricacies of the language, the certainties of the priests - or even a vague, indefinable feeling that the Egyptians came as close as is humanly possible to living a near-perfect life. Individually these would all be good reasons to study any ancient civilisation. Combined, and tinged with the glamour bestowed by some of the world's most flamboyant archaeologists, they make an irresistible package.

Egypt's rich material legacy is the result of her unique funerary beliefs, which, combined with her distinctive geography, encouraged the preservation of archaeological material. The River Nile flows northwards through the centre of Egypt, bringing much needed water to an otherwise arid part of north-east Africa.

Their total dependence on the River Nile as a source of water and a means of transport had a deep impact on the way that the Egyptians saw the world. Their sun god, the falcon-headed Re, did not cross the heavens in a flaming chariot, he sailed sedately in a solar boat.

Parallel to the Nile on both banks of the river runs the Black Land - the narrow strip of fertile soil that allowed the Egyptians to practice the most efficient agriculture in the ancient world. Beyond the Black Land lies the inhospitable Red Land, the desert that once served as a vast cemetery, and beyond the Red Land are the cliffs that protected Egypt from unwelcome visitors.

Believing that the soul could live beyond death, the Egyptians buried their dead in the Red Land, with all the goods they considered they would need in what they thought of as the 'afterlife'. While their mud-brick houses have dissolved and their stone temples have decayed, their desert tombs have survived relatively intact, the dry conditions encouraging the preservation of such delicate materials as plaster, wood, papyrus, cloth, leather and skin.

This wealth of objects, of course, creates a highly biased collection of artefacts. The lives and possessions of the poor are under-represented, and we can never be certain that the goods so carefully provided for the dead were representative of the goods used in daily life. Nevertheless, the contents of Egypt's tombs, supplemented by the illustrations on the tomb walls, have allowed specialists to develop a greater understanding of Egyptian material technology than of any other ancient civilisation.


As one of the first ever professional black football (soccer) players and the first black 
officer in the British Army, Walter Tull is a True Hero That Time Almost Forgot

In Hungarian mythology the goddess Boldog Asszony is the goddess associated with birth, fertility and harvests. She has been incorporated into Hungarian Catholicism, there are 7 goddesses known to be called by a generic title Boldog Asszony. One of these is called Nagy Boldogaszony, who is also the mother of the rest of them. They are associated with the following;
  • the giver and protector of life and the family. 
  • healing and herbes
  • bountifull harvest, fruitgrafting and harvest time
  • fertility of man, animal and plants
  • selection of brides and mates for man.

There are several hollidays associated with her which also strongly link her with agriculture, such as; "gyümölcsolto"; fruit grafting on May 25th, sarlos; sicle March 25th. Her other titles are linked with families but are now unused and Szülö; birthing, which is at December 26th and is only for families. 

As the religious head of the country "Magyarország Nagyasszonya",  the great queen of Hungary was celebrated on October 17th, while Small/Young Boldogasszony day was September 8th. A few holydays are of Christian origin probably like "candle sanctifying" or " Mount Karmel" Boldogasszony days. It should be assumed that Christianity probably change the general message and form of her traditional worship from the old one.

Her day in the week was Tuesday, it was also associated with taboos against washing (clothes) and dirtying water. Even during the time of St Steven in the 11th century St Gellért who converted Hungarians to western Christianity wrote that Bodog asszony was already being associated by the church with Mary the mother of Christ, and was also called the queen of Hungary, and the world. I believe that this association of Boldog Asszony, was not done at first in central Europe but was already practiced in eastern Christianity before the resetlement to Hungary. This based on the mentioning of "Budux" by the Syrian Christian documents.

In looking for a similar goddess in the past researchers have progressed through several Near Eastern fertility goddesses like Astarte, then the Sumerian Inana, but ultimately went even further to find the old Sumerian goddess BA-Ú as the ideal equivalent of BO-DOG ASSZONY in both name and in function. 

She also seems to have links with the early preliterate MAA cults of early Anatolia, which was the source of the agricultural revolution which spread into both Europe and Central Asia, resulting in the various clay figurines of ancient fertility goddesses found in both Central Europe and Anatolia.


Women's History Magazine

Attachment is the bond that keeps couples together long enough for them to have and raise children. Scientists think there might be two major hormones involved in this feeling of attachment; oxytocin and vasopressin.

Oxytocin - The cuddle hormone

Oxytocin is a powerful hormone released by men and women during orgasm.

It probably deepens the feelings of attachment and makes couples feel much closer to one another after they have had sex. The theory goes that the more sex a couple has, the deeper their bond becomes.

Oxytocin also seems to help cement the strong bond between mum and baby and is released during childbirth. It is also responsible for a mum’s breast automatically releasing milk at the mere sight or sound of her young baby.

Diane Witt, assistant professor of psychology from New York has showed that if you block the natural release of oxytocin in sheep and rats, they reject their own young.

Conversely, injecting oxytocin into female rats who’ve never had sex, caused them to fawn over another female’s young, nuzzling the pups and protecting them as if they were their own.


Vasopressin is another important hormone in the long-term commitment stage and is released after sex.

Vasopressin (also called anti-diuretic hormone) works with your kidneys to control thirst. Its potential role in long-term relationships was discovered when scientists looked at the prairie vole.

Prairie voles indulge in far more sex than is strictly necessary for the purposes of reproduction. They also – like humans - form fairly stable pair-bonds.

When male prairie voles were given a drug that suppresses the effect of vasopressin, the bond with their partner deteriorated immediately as they lost their devotion and failed to protect their partner from new suitors.

And finally … how to fall in love
  • Find a complete stranger.
  • Reveal to each other intimate details about your lives for half an hour.
  • Then, stare deeply into each other’s eyes without talking for four minutes.

    York psychologist, Professor Arthur Arun, has been studying why people fall in love. He asked his subjects to carry out the above 3 steps and found that many of his couples felt deeply attracted after the 34 minute experiment. Two of his subjects later got married. 

    According to the "Sutra on the Medicine Master Buddha with the Radiance of Lapis
    Lazuli and His Vows" Bhaisajya-guru made twelve vows to enable all to
    obtain what they seek. 

    • May a radiant light blaze forth from my body after enlightenment, brightening countless realms, and may all beings have perfect physical form, identical to my own.

    • May my body be like pure radiant lapis lazuli, with a radiance more brilliant than the sun and moon, illuminating all who travel in darkness, enabling them to tread upon their paths.

    • By my limitless insight and means, may I enable all beings to obtain the necessities of lif

    • May all beings be shown the path of enlightenment and may adherents to the shravaka or pratyekabuddha paths become established in Mahayana practices.

    • May all beings be aided to follow the precepts of moral conduct. After hearing my name, those who have broken the precepts will be aided to regain their purity and prevented from sinking to a woesome path of existence.

    • May all who are deformed or handicapped in any way have their deformities removed upon hearing my name.

    • May all who are ill be cured upon hearing my name.

    • May all sentient beings who are restrained by their circumstances of birth find a favourable rebirth and progress towards Liberation.

    • May all who are caught in Mara's net, entangled in negative views, be caused to gain correct views and thus practice the Bodhisattva Way.

    • May all who are punished by the king be freed of their troubles.

    • May those who are desperately famished be given food. May they ultimately taste the sublime Teachings.

    • May all who are destitute of clothes obtain attractive garments and various adornments upon concentrating on my name.

      According to these twelve vows, all who sincerely call on the Healing Buddha for assistance will be aided.


      According to ancient alien theorists, extraterrestrials with superior knowledge of science and engineering landed on Earth thousands of years ago, sharing their expertise with early civilizations and forever changing the course of human history. But how did this concept develop, and is there any evidence to support it?

      Ancient alien theory grew out of the centuries-old idea that life exists on other planets, and that humans and extraterrestrials have crossed paths before. The theme of human-alien interaction was thrust into the spotlight in the 1960s, driven by a wave of UFO sightings and popular films like 2001: A Space Odyssey. The space program played no small part in this as well: If mankind could travel to other planets, why couldn’t extraterrestrials visit Earth?

      In 1968, the Swiss author Erich von Däniken published Chariots of the Gods?, which became an immediate bestseller. In it, he put forth his hypothesis that, thousands of years ago, space travelers from other planets visited Earth, where they taught humans about technology and influenced ancient religions. He is regarded by many as the father of ancient alien theory, also known as the ancient astronaut theory.

      Most ancient alien theorists, including von Däniken, point to two types of evidence to support their ideas. The first is ancient religious texts in which humans witness and interact with gods or other heavenly beings who descend from the sky—sometimes in vehicles resembling spaceships—and possess spectacular powers. The second is physical specimens such as artwork depicting alien-like figures and ancient architectural marvels like Stonehenge and the pyramids of Egypt.

      If aliens visited Earth in the past, could they make an appearance in the future? For ancient alien theorists, the answer is a resounding yes. They believe that, by sharing their views with the world, they can help prepare future generations for the inevitable encounter that awaits them.


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