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 Jarretta Hamilton is suing her former employer, Southland Christian School, in St. Cloud, Florida.

Jarretta Hamilton was hired by Southland Christian School as a fourth-grade teacher in January of 2008. In 2009, she found out that she was expecting a baby. Soon afterwards, she went to talk to school officials maternity leave policy.

Little did she know, but the maternity leave section of school policy was the least of her worries. Jarretta Hamilton had not long been married, which led school officials to specifically ask her the date that she conceived. Mrs. Hamilton explained that she conceived about three weeks prior to her marriage.

The private Christian school decided to fire Mrs. Hamilton for failure to “maintain and communicate the values and purpose of [Southland Christian School].” NBC news shared a clip of a letter from Southland Christian School on the subject, “Jarretta was asked not to return because of a moral issue that was disregarded, namely fornication, sex outside of marriage.” The letter also claims that Mrs. Hamilton agreed to uphold standards related to school values on her job application, a fact that Mrs. Hamilton disputes.

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Contrary to widespread belief, only two very specific types of people flirt: those who are single and those who are married. Single people flirt because, well, they're single and therefore nobody is really contractually obliged to talk to them, sleep with them or scratch that difficult-to-reach part of the back.

But married people, they're a tougher puzzle. They've found themselves a suitable--maybe even superior--mate, had a bit of productive fun with the old gametes and ensured that at least some of their genes are carried into the next generation. They've done their duty, evolutionarily speaking. Their genome will survive.

And before you claim, whether single or married, that you never flirt, bear in mind that it's not just talk we're dealing with here. It's gestures, stance, eye movement. Notice how you lean forward to the person you're talking to and tip up your heels? Notice the quick little eyebrow raise you make, the sidelong glance coupled with the weak smile you give, the slightly sustained gaze you offer? If you're a woman, do you feel your head tilting to the side a bit, exposing either your soft, sensuous neck or, looking at it another way, your jugular? If you're a guy, are you keeping your body in an open, come-on-attack-me position, arms positioned to draw the eye to your impressive lower abdomen?

Scientists call all these little acts "contact-readiness" cues, because they indicate, nonverbally, that you're prepared for physical engagement. (More general body language is known as "nonverbal leakage." Deep in their souls, all scientists are poets.) These cues are a crucial part of what's known in human-ethology circles as the "heterosexual relationship initiation process" and elsewhere, often on the selfsame college campuses, as "coming on to someone."

In primal terms, they're physical signals that you don't intend to dominate, nor do you intend to flee--both useful messages potential mates need to send before they can proceed to that awkward talking phase. They're the opening line, so to speak, for the opening line.

One of the reasons we flirt in this way is that we can't help it. We're programmed to do it, whether by biology or culture. The biology part has been investigated by any number of researchers. Ethologist Irenaus Eibl Eibesfeldt, then of the Max Planck Institute in Germany, filmed African tribes in the 1960s and found that the women there did the exact same prolonged stare followed by a head tilt away with a little smile that he saw in America. (The technical name for the head movement is a "cant." Except in this case it's more like "can.")

Evolutionary biologists would suggest that those individuals who executed flirting maneuvers most adeptly were more successful in swiftly finding a mate and reproducing and that the behavior therefore became widespread in all humans. "A lot of people feel flirting is part of the universal language of how we communicate, especially nonverbally," says Jeffry Simpson, director of the social psychology program at the University of Minnesota.

Read more: Time Magazine
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It's usually modern art that aims to overturn preconceptions, but a new show of 19th century paintings delivers more shocks than Tracey Emin.

One revelation is embedded in the title — "Black Victorians: Black People in British Art 1800-1900." The very concept of "black Victorians" may surprise.

There had, of course, been Africans in Britain long before Victoria ascended the throne in 1837, but in the 19th century they were a familiar sight — not that you'd know that from most accounts of the old Queen's reign. Yet Victorian art depicted many black subjects — not only servants, but also soldiers, sailors, actors, musicians and pugilists. "I began to look more systematically and discovered hundreds [of these images]," Jan Marsh says. "It both reveals Victorian art as not as white as we imagine, but also Victorian society as not as white as we imagine"....

Of course, many black Victorians did still occupy subordinate positions. In Thomas Faed's Visit to the Village School (1852), set in Scotland, a local bigwig and his wife listen to the youngest students reading, while some of the older pupils taunt their young black servant.

Such story pictures were put together from studies of professional models. Jamaican-born Fanny Eaton often turns up in the background of biblical subjects, but later in the century black models appeared on the losing side in topical battle pictures. Prints like Lts Coghill and Melville Saving the Colours, Zulu War, 1879 (1882), after Adolphe Alphonse de Neuville, may look stagey to us, but even back then not everyone found them convincing. A critic commented: "[We see] the ordinary Parisian negro-models, reproduced in more or less warlike attitudes"....

For the most part, Victorian society was one in which most thought black people inferior. Yet Marsh observes: "Although Victorian society was racist through and through, this is not reflected in the art."

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22. My Heart Burns Like Fire

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Soyen Shaku, the first Zen teacher to come to America, said: "My heart burns like fire but my eyes are as cold as dead ashes." He made the following rules which he practiced every day of his life.

In the morning before dressing, light incense and meditate.

Retire at a regular hour. Partake of food at regular intervals. Eat with moderation and never to the point of satisfaction.

Receive a guest with the same attitude you have when alone. When alone, maintain the same attitude you have in receiving guests.

Watch what you say, and whatever you say, practice it.

When an opportunity comes do not let it pass by, yet always think twice before acting.

Do not regret the past. Look to the future.

Have the fearless attitude of a hero and the loving heart of a child.

Upon retiring, sleep as if you had entered your last sleep. Upon awakening, leave your bed behind you instantly as if you had cast away a pair of old shoes.

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2,700 year old human remains found

The Muses were not only singers for Zeus and other gods; they also oversaw thought in all its forms: eloquence, persuasion, knowledge, history, mathematics, astronomy. 

Hesiod praises their services to humankind, claiming that they accompany kings and inspire them with the persuasive words necessary to settle argument and re-establish peace, and that they give monarchs the gift of gentleness which makes them popular.

A singer (thought of as a servant of the Muses) has only to celebrate the deeds of men of long ago or to sing of the gods, and anyone listening who is beset by troubles or sorrows will forget them instantly. The oldest song of the Muses is the one sung after the victory of the Olympians over the Titans to celebrate the birth of a new order.

The following list of Muses was accepted by those who lived during the classical period in Western history:

  • Calliope--The first of the muses in dignity, is the muse of heroic or epic poetry, and is often depicted holding a writing tablet.
  • Clio--The muse of history, represented with an open scroll of paper, a laurel wreath, and a trumpet.
  • Erato--The muse of love poetry, from whom comes the term "erotic." She is often shown holding a lyre.
  • Euterpe--Muse of music or flutes (often playing flutes).
  • Melpomene--Represents tragedy. Most often depicted with a tragic mask and the cothurnus (a high shoe worn by tragic actors to increase their apparent stature).
  • Polymnia--Muse of sacred poetry, ceremonial song or sublime hymn, or the mimic art.
  • Terpsichore--Muse of dancing and choral song. She is often represented dancing with the lyre.
  • Thaleia--Muse of comedy, often shown with a comic mask.
  • Urania--The muse of astronomy, usually portrayed with a staff pointing to a celestial globe.
 The word "museum" originally meant a place connected with the Muses or the arts inspired by them.

Classical era Greeks and Romans understood history differently than do people in the modern era. Whereas Greco-Romans considered history more literally, as something to be remembered and aspired to, we tend to think of history as something that explains present circumstances and can be a valuable guide to the future. In that sense, in some ways the nobler aspects of the past can and should be emulated.

Source: Texas A & M University 
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Women's History Magazine


Courtly love is epitomized by the idea of the lover's unworthiness, the educative and ennobling effects of love, the need for secrecy, the idealization of the woman, and the pain that the lover feels.

Often the love is characterized as hopeless: the lady is stony-hearted or far away. Courtly love was predominantly an institution of serving male interests: the acquisition of honor and status. 

Yet women were necessarily implicated in the tradition. The rhetoric and practices of courtly love did nothing to raise the status of women in the regions where courtly love flourished. If idealization of the feminine became culturally widespread, there were no tangible benefits to actual women in terms of individual autonomy.

The ideology of courtly love was evolved by men intent on working out their own ideas of what women should be, ideologies which fulfilled their own emotional needs and desires.


Although the great majority of the female population were married at some point in their lives, the writings by women which survive are overwhelmingly those monastic women, who have never been, or were no longer, married. Yet the universality of marriage in one form or another is such that there are many texts which serve to flesh out a conception of the changing institution emerging in law codes and theological writing throughout the period.

Marriage customs varied by region and marriage patterns were modified by class. At the most general level marriage is a social mechanism designed to regulate the distribution of women between male members of society and to formalize the links between a man and his offspring. In western Europe men have tended to have only one wife at a time: serial monogamy.

In early medieval Europe divorce seems to have been relatively easy to obtain. A declaration before witnesses that a husband or wife was divorcing his or her spouse was all that was necessary. However, by the tenth century, marriage had changed from an essentially private arrangement between a man and a woman and their respective families, into a Christian and lifelong monogamous partnership.

The wife had to have useful kindred to cement political alliances, be able to provide sons and heirs in sufficient numbers to ensure inheritance, and, increasingly, to be a companion to her husband.


Medieval medical writers and natural philosophers, as opposed to theologians, viewed sex as necessary to both men and women. Without a regular outlet for sexual desire both sexes were likely to become ill. Male seed, and the female equivalent which many writers believed to exist and be discharged by the woman during orgasm, had to be eliminated from the body periodically, just as other discharges such as phlegm, saliva, etc.

Thus, sexual pleasure of the woman was regarded as a precondition of conception. Without orgasm, it was thought, ejaculation of the 'female seed' would not occur and conception could not take place. Women were then expected to take pleasure in sex. It was commonplace in writing that women were naturally more lustful and voracious in their sexual appetites than men, and that they could easily exhaust and destroy their husbands' with their relentlessness.

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Women's History Magazine

During the surveying of prehistoric rock art at Carr Edge in Northumberland, on 30th October 2005, a previously unrecorded rock art panel was discovered by Yvonne Black, Ian Craig and Derek Gunby, members of Team 4 of the Rock Art Project of Northumberland and Durham.

The panel is an exposure of sandstone rock, 2 m x 1.2 m, upon which is carved a figure of a warrior. The figure holds a sword or spear in his right hand and a shield in his left. There is a sword or knife scabbard at his waist on his right side.

A second figure is located below and to the right of the first. This figure has an almost triangular body and has facial features of eyes and nose. There are several cup and groove marks on the rock and many peck marks.

A carving in the bottom left of the panel may suggest a third, hooded, figure but this requires further investigation. The panel is located on top of a natural mound. It was found close to another new sandstone panel which is carved with cup and groove marks. The mound is in an area of rough pasture with a small wood to the north. It is in an elevated position with a view towards Warden Hill.

Such is the complexity of the panel that it is difficult to ascertain if any of the carvings are contemporary. It is thought that the carvings could range in date from early Iron Age to Romano-British. However, the cup and groove marks may well be earlier than the figure carvings since these are of a more traditional indigenous form.....

Since Carr Edge is just as close in proximity to Warden Hill (Iron Age hill fort) as it is to Hadrian's Wall the geographical location of the warrior figure does not necessarily suggest a Roman date of origin. However, the Stanegate (Roman road) runs between Warden Hill and Carr Edge, so there is an undeniable Roman presence in the area.

The second figure is probably female as it is comparable in form to carvings of the Romano-British triple goddess, examples of which may be seen at Housesteads and Bath. The carving at Bath has not been dated, but is assumed to be Roman. The Deae Matres or the Matronae (the three mother goddesses) together form a unity representing strength, power and fertility.

The origin of the 'power of three' dates to the Iron Age as triplism was prevalent in Celtic religion and the triskele was a recurring motif in Celtic art. Only one female figure is present on the Carr Edge panel but it may be that the carving was not completed. It could, of course, depict only one Celtic mother goddess - The Morrigan. The Morrigan is the unification of a triad of goddesses, Morrigan, Badb and Nemain. She is both fertile and destructive.

The potential hooded figure could represent a genii cucullati (guardian spirits with hooded cloaks). These are also known to represent the male triple god of fertility and frequently appear alongside the triple goddess in Celtic iconography. Both the genii cucullati and the Matronae are known to be protectors of springs and rivers. There is evidence to suggest that a spring once existed close to the figure panel at Carr Edge.

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During the Second World War, nearly a million women fought alongside their male counterparts and in October 1941, women’s aviation regiments began to be formed. Marina Raskova, already an ace pilot and member of the ‘People’s Defence Committee’, was allowed to organised three female aviation groups authorised by the Soviet high command. They were the 586 IAP (Fighter Aviation Regiment), the 587 BAP (Bomber Aviation Regiment) and the 588 NBAP (Night Bomber Aviation Regiment).

After being accepted to the training program, the young women underwent a rigorous six month flying and navigation course, fitting in to that time an amount of training that would normally take around a year and a half. In September 1942, Valerya Khomyakova of the 586 IAP’s or ‘Fighter Aviation Regiment’ became the first female Soviet pilot to shoot down an enemy aircraft at night when she downed a Ju 99.

A month later, the 586 IAP assisted in Operation Saturn and Uranus, which was successful in eliminating the German 6th Army at Stalingrad, after which, they were given the task of defending some important military logistical facilities and strategic locations. In 1944, the unit took part in the Soviet offensive in Hungry fighting with Yak-9 fighters and they finished the war on one of the captured airfields in Austria.

The 588 NBAP unit or ‘Night Bomber Aviation Regiment’ arrived combat ready in the Ukraine on the 23rd May 1942. They quickly earned the respect and fear of their enemies being given the nick name ‘night witches’. The decorated German Commander of II. /JG 52, Hauptmann Johannes Steinhoff, wrote of the 588 NBAP’s;

"We simply couldn't grasp that the Soviet airmen that caused us the greatest trouble were in fact WOMEN. These women feared nothing. They came night after night in their very slow biplanes, and for some periods they wouldn't give us any sleep at all."

On 25th October 1942, a bomb strike by the 588 NBAP set alight a fuel depot at Armavir airfield. The fire spread and destroyed all but one of the planes on the airfield, leading to the quick withdrawal of the German fighters situated there. In January the following year, the regiments achievements were acknowledged and it was given the new title of 46th Taman' Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment.

It was the most highly decorated regiment in the whole Soviet Air Force, with twenty-three of its pilots being awarded with the Gold Star of Hero of the Soviet Union, with a former navigator of the regiment becoming the twenty-forth to receive the award in 1995.

Marina Raskova took command of the third regiment herself, the 587th BAP or (Bomber Aviation Regiment). The regiment finished its training on 22nd November 1942 and was moved to the Stalingrad front line. After helping to liberate the town of Borisov, the unit became known as the 125th "M. M. Raskova" Borisov Guards Dive Bomber Aviation Regiment.

In one celebrated incident involving a pilot from the unit, Mariya Dolina flying a Pe-2 bomber, managed to shoot down two enemy plains at the same time. The regiment finished war operations in May 1943 after flying a total of 1134 combat missions dropping 980 tons of bombs in the process. A tribute made to the women of the unit by the Free-French pilots of the "Normandie-Niemen" Fighter Regiment who often fought along side them stated;

"Even if it were possible to gather and place at your feet all the flowers on earth, this would not constitute sufficient tribute to your valour."

The 587 BAP and the 588 NBAP were involved in the fighting in the Kuban area of Southern Russia where they came up against some of the best fighter pilots the German air force had to offer including Erich Harmann of the famous JG 54 fighter group, who was the highest ranked fighter ace in the world with 352 confirmed combat kills.

Throughout the war, the Soviet female fighter pilots were involved in some of the heaviest aerial combat operations in history. They earned the fear and respect of enemy combatants and were often highly decorated for their efforts by their country.

More articles at Triond
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Women's History Magazine

After the Battle of Hastings and the death of King Harold, the country was full of turmoil. 
Read how the new rulers of Britain coped with the treachery and rebellion that followed 
their success in battle.....

Although the word ‘bikini’ has only been in existence since 1946, the two piece swim-suit that it represents has been around much longer, since around 1600 BC. Minoan wall paintings have been discovered in recent decades showing images of women involved in gymnastic exercises wearing skimpy two piece costumes that look a lot like modern day bikinis.

The Romans have long been known to have worn similar out-fits based on depictions on mosaics and murals. The Villa Romana del Casale, situated about three and a half miles from the town of Piazza Amerina in Sicily and built around 330 AD has a well-preserved mosaic, entitled "Coronation of the Winner".

It features trim young women wearing bikini like garments exercising with balls, discus, and hand weights and the winner is holding a palm leaf and a crown of roses (shown above).

In modern times, the two-piece swimsuit made its first appearance in the summer of 1946, designed by Jacques Heim, it was displayed in a beach shop in France. He named his creation ‘The Atome’, after the Atom bomb, and advertised all over Cannes beaches that the world’s smallest bathing suit was now available to buy.

Three week after the ‘Atome’ was released, Louis Reard engineer turned swimsuit designer, brought out a similar swimsuit which he sold along the French Riviera. Reard named his creation the ‘Bikini’ after a small island in the South Pacific where the atomic bomb was being tested. Like the ‘Atome’, it was made up of two small pieces of cloth and for the first time in the modern era, women were publicly revealing their backs and navels.

A year after it was released in France, Reard’s bikini was released in America causing an amount of curiosity but very little in the way of sales and was even outlawed in some states as a result of its scantiness.

For the next twenty years, the bikini was little more than a side show in the fashion industry but by the late 1960s, the ‘Sexual Revolution’ took hold in America and the rest of the western world and the tiny swimsuit became a success. Today, the bikini is world famous and by far the most popular form of swimwear for women worldwide and is an $811 million industry in America alone.

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